He differed from the earlier enlightenment thinkers in focusing on the passionate side of man's nature and rejecting the worship of pure reason.
History[ edit ] The term alienation has been used over the ages with varied and sometimes contradictory meanings. In ancient history it could mean a metaphysical sense of Rousseau alienation a higher state of contemplationecstasy or union—becoming alienated from a limited existence in the world, in a positive sense.
Examples of this usage have been traced to neoplatonic philosophers such as Plotinus in the Greek alloiosis. There have also long been religious concepts of being separated or cut off from God and the faithful, alienated in a Rousseau alienation sense. The New Testament mentions the term apallotrioomai in Greek—"being alienated from".
Ideas of estrangement from a Golden Ageor due to a fall of manor approximate equivalents in differing cultures or religionshave also been described as concepts of alienation.
A double positive and negative sense of alienation is broadly shown in the spiritual beliefs referred to as Gnosticism. Alienation has also had a particular legal - political meaning since at least Ancient Roman times, where to alienate property alienato is to transfer ownership of it to someone else.
The term alienation itself comes from the Latin alienus which meant 'of another place or person', which in turn came from alius, meaning "other" or "another". An alienus in ancient Roman times could refer to someone else's slave.
Another usage of the term in Ancient Greco-Roman times was by physicians referring to disturbed, difficult or abnormal states of mind, generally attributed to imbalanced physiology. In Latin alienatio mentis mental alienationthis usage has been dated to Asclepiades. In medieval times, a relationship between alienation and social order has been described, mediated in part by mysticism and monasticism.
The Crusades and witch-hunts have been described as forms of mass alienation. In the 18th century, Hutcheson introduced a distinction between alienable and unalienable rights in the legal sense of the term.
Rousseau published influential works on the same theme, and is also seen as having popularized a more psychological-social concept relating to alienation from a state of nature due to the expansion of civil society or the nation state.
In the same century a law of alienation of affection was introduced for men to seek compensation from other men accused of taking away 'their' woman. In the history of literature, the German Romantics appear to be the first group of writers and poets in whose work the concept of alienation is regularly found.
Around the same time, Pinel was popularizing a new understanding of mental alienation, particularly through his 'medical-philosophical treatise'.
He argued that people could be disturbed alienated by emotional states and social conditions, without necessarily having lost become alienated from their reason, as had generally been assumed. Hegel praised Pinel for his ' moral treatment ' approach, and developed related theories.
The former camp has had a more lasting influence and, among them, Feuerbach differed from Hegel in arguing that worship of God is itself a form of alienation, because it projects human qualities on to an external idea, rather than realising them as part of the self.
Marx's theory of alienation Marx was initially in the Young Hegelian camp and, like Feuerbach, rejected the spiritual basis, and adapted Hegel's dialectic model to a theory of historical materialism.
Marx's theory of alienation is articulated most clearly in the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of and The German Ideology The 'young' Marx wrote more often and directly of alienation than the 'mature' Marx, which some regard as an ideological break while others maintain that the concept remained central.
There is generally held to be a transition from a philosophical- anthropological Marxist humanism concept e.View this term paper on Marx Rousseau Alienation Historically Speaking.
Marx conceived of and in many ways developed a blueprint for collectivism The individual. It is interesting to compare Durkheim and Marx on their ideas about modern consciousness.
Durkheim focused on social solidarity as one of the important functions of a social order: individuals had a defined place in the world that was created and reinforced by the . Francis Bacon (—) Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St.
Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, . This article is based on the conviction that Jean-Jacques Rousseau's () originality and importance for modern thinking is twofold.
Firstly, he introduced the first influential modern theory of alienation. This is widely recognised in the contemporary philosophical and pedagogical Rousseau. View Essay - Alienation Rousseau essay from POLISCI 2O06 at McMaster University.
The nature of alienation in modern societies is common ground shared between Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx. Both%(1). Search in over Osho books full of humor and wisdom at your fingertips. From Attachment to Zarathustra, from Anarchism to Zen, from Awareness to Zorba the Buddha – it is all here.